The Article
A. As a Pronoun
1. Personal Pronoun [he, she, it]
2. Relative Pronoun [who, which]
3. Possessive Pronoun [his, her]
B. With Substantives
4. Simple Identification
5. Anaphoric (Previous Reference)
6. Deictic ("Pointing" Article)
7. Par Excellence
8. Monadic ("One of a Kind" or "Unique")
9. Well-Known ("Celebrity" Article)
10. Abstract (with Abstract Nouns)
11. Generic (Categorical) [as a class]
C. As a Substantiver
D. As a Function Marker
12. To Denote Adjectival Positions
13. With Possessive Pronouns
14. In Genitive Phrases
15. With Indeclinable Nouns
16. With Participles
17. With Demonstratives
18. With Nominative Nouns
19. To Distinguish Subject from Predicate
Nominative and Object from Complement
E. Absence of the Article
20. Indefinite
21. Qualitative
22. Definite
Special Uses
  • Colwell's Rule
  • Granville Sharp Rule

Understanding the article is essential for biblical exegesis, and our summary here is especially shortened. Be sure to see Wallace's full grammar on the article, especially his discussion of "Colwell's Rule" and "Granville Sharp's Rule," and his discussion of the absense of the article. Some of the following categories overlap.

A. As a Pronoun ([partially] Independent Use)

The article is not a true pronoun in Koine Greek, even though it derived from the demonstrative. But in many instances it can function semantically in the place of a pronoun.

1. Personal Pronoun [he, she, it]

2. Relative Pronoun [who, which]

3. Possessive Pronoun [his, her]

B. With Substantives (Dependent or Modifying Use)

[Wallace classifies all of the following categories except the last as subcategories of the "individualizing article."] The individualizing article particularizes, distinguishing otherwise similar objects; the generic (or categorical) article is used to distinguish one category of individuals from another.

4. Simple Identification

5. Anaphoric (Previous Reference)

6. Deitic ("Pointing" Article)

7. Par Excellence

8. Monadic ("One of a Kind" or "Unique" Article)

9. Well-Kown ("Celebrity" Article)

10. Abstract (the Article with Abstract Nouns)

11. Generic (Categorical) Article [as a class]

C. As a Substantiver

The article can turn almost any part of speech into a noun: adverbs, adjectives, prepositional phrases, particles, infinitives, participles, and even finite verbs. As well, the article can turn a phrase into a nominal entity. This incredible flexibility is part of the genius of the Greek article.

D. As a Function Marker

When the article is used as a grammatical function marker, it may or may not also bear a semantic force. But even when it does bear such a force, the grammatical (structural) use is usually prominent.

12. To Denote Adjectival Positions

13. With Possessive Pronouns

14. In Genitive Phrases

15. With Indeclinable Nouns

16. With Participles

17. With Demonstratives

18. With Nominative Nouns

19. To Distinguish Subject from Predicate Nominative and Object from Complement

E. Absence of the Article

It is not necessary for a noun to have the article in order for it to be definite. But conversely, a noun cannot be indefinite when it has the article. Thus it may be definite without the article, and it must be definite with the article. When a substantive is anarthrous, it may have one of three forces: indefinite, qualitative, or definite. [Be sure to read Wallace on the significance of the absence of the article and study his many exegetically significant examples. The following is significantly shortened.]

20. Indefinite

21. Qualitative

22. Definite


Special Uses and Non-Uses of the Article

A. Anarthrous Pre-Verbal Predicate Nominatives (Involving Colwell's Rule)

B. The Article with Multiple Substantives Connected by Kai (Granville Sharp Rule and Related Constructions)


Adjectives

"Non-Adjectival" Uses of the Adjective

The Adverbial Use of the Adjective

The Independent or Substantival Use of the Adjective

The Use of the Positive, Comparative,
and Superlative Forms of the Adjective

A. The Use of the Positive Adjective
B. The Use of the Comparative Adjective
C. The Use of the Superative Adjective

The Relation of Adjective to Noun

A. When the Article is Present
B. When the Article Is Absent

Pronouns

Semantic Categories: Major Classes

A. Personal Pronouns: egw, su, autoV
B. Demonstrative Pronouns: pointers - outoV, ekeinoV, ode
C. Relative Pronouns: oV and ostiV labeled relative pronouns because they relate to more than one clause
D. Interrogative Pronouns ask a question: tiV & ti, poioV, posoV
E. Indefinite Pronouns: introduces a member of a class without further identification (tis, ti)
F. Possessive Pronouns (Adjectives): no distinct form a Greek, but:
G. Intensive Pronoun: autoV

H. Reflexive Pronouns: enautou (of myself), seautou (of yourself), eautou (of himself), eautwn (of themselves); used to highlight the participation of the subject in the verbal action, as direct object, indirect object, intesifier, etc.

I. Reciprocal Pronouns: allhlwn (of one another) used to indicate an interchange between two or more groups; thus, always plural.

Lexico-Syntatic Categories: Major Terms

allhlwn
autoV
eautou
egw
ekeinoV
emautou
hmeiV
ode
oV
ostiV
outoV
poioV
posoV
seautou
su
tiV
tiV
umeiV
reciprocal
personal
reflexive
personal
demonstrative
reflexive
personal
demonstrative
relative
relative
demonstrative
interrogative
interrogative
reflexive
personal
interrogative
indefinite
personal
.
possessive (gen.), intensive
.
possessive (gen.)
personal
.
possessive (gen)
.
(definite)
(indefinite)
personal
(qualitative)
(quantitative)
.
possessive (gen.)
.
.
possessive (gen.)


Edition: Feb 10,2009